In 1526, in the famous Battle of Panipat, Emperor Babur was the first Mughal ruler who defeated the last of the Delhi Sultans, Ibrahim Shah Lodhi. Babur was a Conqueror from Central Asia. His rule was relatively short.
Humayun succeeded the throne after death of Babur at the age of twenty three. His reign was interrupted by political turbulence and an enforced exile by an Afghan leader, Sher Shah.
After the death of Humayun, his 13 year old son Akbar was crowned. Akbar the great was a military genius and was considered the first great patron of the jeweled arts in that era. He also gained control over Rajput through diplomacy and marriage alliances. He was a great patron of art, architecture and literature.
Akbar’s reign was followed by his son Jahangir. Jahangir derived his name from a Persian word which means "world conqueror". He was ranked as a Mansabdar of ten thousand, which is the highest rank in military after the Emperor at a very young age. At the age of twelve, he commanded a regiment independently in the Kabul campaign. Like Akbar, Jahangir managed diplomatic relations on the Indian sub-continent. He loved art, science and architecture and contributed to their growth during his reign.
Jahangir’s reign was followed by his son, Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan's thirty years of reign from the year 1628 to 1658, is often referred to as the golden period of the Mughal dynasty - a peaceful era of prosperity and stability.
Aurangzeb is considered the last great ruler of the Mughal dynasty. He was among the wealthiest of the Mughal rulers. During his reign, the Mughal empire reached its greatest extent with victories in the south. However, his intolerance to religions other than islam led to various revolts by Marathas, Sikhs and Jats which in turn led to the downfall of Mughal Empire.